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Speech to the Second Virginia Convention1
by Patrick Henry  (at St. John's Church, Richmond, Virginia)

A speech delivered March 23, 1775, first published in 1816.
Henry proposes assembling, arming, and training a militia to defend the colony of Virginia on behalf of popular liberty.  

 
MR. PRESIDENT: No man thinks more highly than I do of the patriotism, as well as abilities, of the very worthy gentlemen who have just addressed the House. But different men often see the same subject in different lights; and, therefore, I hope it will not be thought disrespectful to those gentlemen if, entertaining as I do, opinions of a character very opposite to theirs, I shall speak forth my sentiments freely, and without reserve. This is no time for ceremony. The question before the House is one of awful moment to this country. For my own part, I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery; and in proportion to the magnitude of the subject ought to be the freedom of the debate. It is only in this way that we can hope to arrive at truth, and fulfil the great responsibility which we hold to God and our country. Should I keep back my opinions at such a time, through fear of giving offence, I should consider myself as guilty of treason towards my country, and of an act of disloyalty toward the majesty of heaven, which I revere above all earthly kings.

Mr. President, it is natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope. We are apt to shut our eyes against a painful truth, and listen to the song of that siren till she transforms us into beasts. Is this the part of wise men, engaged in a great and arduous struggle for liberty? Are we disposed to be of the number of those who, having eyes, see not, and, having ears, hear not, the things which so nearly concern their temporal salvation? For my part, whatever anguish of spirit it may cost, I am willing to know the whole truth; to know the worst, and to provide for it.

I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided; and that is the lamp of experience. I know of no way of judging of the future but by the past. And judging by the past, I wish to know what there has been in the conduct of the British ministry for the last ten years, to justify those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to solace themselves, and the House? Is it that insidious smile with which our petition has been lately received?



1 Henry's "give me liberty or give me death" speech; this was the second of five Virginia conventions, which together served as a provisional Revolutionary government--the fifth declared Virginia's independence from Great Britain.
PORTRAIT: Patrick Henry by George Bagby Matthews (1891).
CITATION: Henry, Patrick. "Speech to the Second Virginia Convention." Masterpieces of American Eloquence. Ed. Alexander Johnston. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1890. Gleeditions. Web. YOUR DATE OF ACCESS (e.g., 17 April, 2011). 
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