[7.11] One who does not know the mountains and forests, gorges and defiles,* swamps and wetlands cannot advance the army. One who does not use local guides cannot take advantage of the ground.
[7.12] Therefore, the army is established on deception, mobilized by advantage,* and changed through dividing up and consolidating the troops.
[7.13] Therefore, it advances like the wind; it marches like the forest; it invades and plunders like fire; it stands like the mountain; it is formless like the dark; it strikes like thunder.*
[7.14] When you plunder the countryside, divide the wealth among your troops; when you expand your territory, divide up and hold places of advantage.
[7.15] Calculate the situation, and then move. Those who know the principles of the circuitous and direct will be victorious. This is armed struggle.
[7.16] The Book of Military Administration* says: It is because words cannot be clearly heard in battle, drums and gongs are used; it is because troops cannot see each other clearly in battle, flags and pennants are used.
[7.17] Therefore, in night, battles use torches and drums; in day, battles use flags and pennants. Drums, gongs, flags, and pennants are used to unite men's eyes and ears.
[7.18] When the men are united, the brave cannot advance alone, the cowardly cannot retreat alone.* These are the principles for employing a large number of troops.
[7.19] Therefore, in night battles, use many torches and drums, and in day battles, use many flags and pennants in order to influence men's eyes and ears.*
[7.20] The energy of the army can be dampened, and the general's mind can be dampened. Therefore, in the morning, energy is high, but during the day energy begins to flag; and in the evening, energy is exhausted.
7.11 defiles. Narrow passes.
7.12 by advantage. By seeking the advantage/the quickest route/speediest arrival to give your army the advantage of its adversary.
7.13 a) advances like the wind. Advances quickly, easily, and constantly. b) marches like the forest. Moves forward in large numbers and good order as a unit. plunders like the fire. c) sweeps through so intensely that few outsiders dare interfere with its progress. 4) is formless like the dark. Conceals its strengths and weaknesses. 5) strikes like thunder. Strikes with overwhelming force.
7.16 Book of Administration. Little is know of this military manual other than it existed.
7.19 use many flags and pennants in order to influence.... Use symbols to communicate with followers and keep them united and combat ready.